Source: Mulberry leaves
Detection method: HPLC
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What is 1-deoxynojirimycin?
Mulberry Leaf extract DNJ is a piperidine alkaloid mainly isolated from the plant mulberry. Current research has found that it has physiological activities such as hypoglycemic, lipid-lowering, and antiviral. In terms of lipid metabolism, the team's previous research found that the lipid-lowering mechanism of DNJ is mainly to regulate the activity of enzymes related to lipid metabolism, inhibit fatty acid synthesis, and promote fatty acid β-oxidation. The liver plays an important role in the process of lipid metabolism, and mitochondria are an important site for fatty acid beta oxidation. Southwest University studied the effects of DNJ on mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy in liver cells of obese mice to further explore its weight loss mechanism and provide a basis for further in-depth research on DNJ. It provides a basis for its impact on mitochondria in obese mice and the development of DNJ-related products.
What are the benefits?
Hypoglycemic effect of DNJ
Mulberry Leaf extract DNJ is a potent inhibitor of alpha-glucosidase in all mammals, which reduces postprandial hyperglycemia by reducing carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption. Due to this property, DNJ can be used to treat diabetes and diabetic complications, obesity and related disorders.
DNJ has different inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase in different animals. DNJ inhibits sucrase and maltase with IC50. When the inhibitory effect of DNJ on glycosidase reaches 50%, the concentration range of DNJ is 6.6~16×10-8M and 97.4~63×10-8M respectively. DNJ exhibits competitive inhibition on α-glucosidase. It often acts on or near the substrate binding site and competes with the substrate for binding to the enzyme. DNJ's hypoglycemic mechanism: Sugars in the diet, such as starch, are hydrolyzed while entering the stomach due to the action of salivary alpha-amylase. About 70% of the portion in the stomach that has not been mixed with saliva is still undergoing hydrolysis. Then it enters the duodenum and continues to be hydrolyzed under the action of pancreatic juice α-amylase to produce disaccharides such as sucrose and maltose. When the disaccharide is transported to the small intestine, it is hydrolyzed by α-glycosidase on the surface of the microciliary membrane in the upper part of the small intestine into monomers such as glucose and fructose, which are absorbed into the body through the intestinal wall, causing a sharp increase in glucose concentration in the blood. When food is ingested together with DNJ, the food also reaches the small intestine and is decomposed into disaccharides. At the same time, DNJ also enters the small intestine and binds to the α-glycosidase in it. Because the affinity of DNJ and α-glycosidase is greater than that of disaccharides and α-glycosidase Therefore, DNJ blocks the combination of disaccharide and α-glycosidase. As a result, α-glycosidase cannot decompose the disaccharide, and the disaccharide cannot be hydrolyzed into glucose and is directly sent to the large intestine. Due to the action of DNJ, less glucose enters the blood, thus lowering blood sugar levels.
Inhibitory effect of DNJ on viral activity
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that can cause T4+ (CD4+) lymphocyte pathology. HIV has two glycosylated envelope proteins: the glycoprotein gpl20 is linked to the CD4 antigen. Glycoprotein gp41 is a transmembrane protein anchored to the envelope of the viral membrane. gp120 and gp41 bind to CD4+ cells and undergo membrane fusion. These viral envelope glycoproteins and host CD4 surface receptors play important roles in viral penetration, syncytial formation, and viral spread to neighboring cells. Therefore, interfering with the function of viral envelope glycoproteins will be a method to chemically prevent HIV infection. The inhibition test of DNJ on Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoLV) shows that DNJ has significant antiretroviral activity, with an IC50 of 1.2 to 2.5 μg/mL, and its inhibitory power increases as the dose of DNJ increases. During the formation of glycoproteins, glycosylation steps such as the transfer of polysaccharide precursors to nascent peptides and subsequent glucose modification are necessary for the processing and folding of the HIV envelope. Glucose modification is completed by α-glucosidase I and II cleavage of external α-1,2 glucose residues and internal α-1,3 glucose residues. DNJ, as an inhibitor of these enzymes, can inhibit the modification of glucose, while Change HIV infectivity in CD4 cultured cells. In addition, the accumulation of immature glycoproteins caused by the inhibitory effect of DNJ on glucosidase I may inhibit viral replication by inhibiting cell fusion, virus binding to host cell receptors, viral penetration, and syncytium formation, thereby inhibiting Viral activity.
DNJ has strong resistance to a variety of animal-derived viruses, such as porcine blue ear virus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus, avian bursal virus, African swine fever virus, etc.
Principle of hypoglycemic
1-Deoxynojirimycin Powder maintains healthy blood sugar levels in the human body through the combined action of multiple pathways. Research results over the years have shown that the hypoglycemic mechanism of DNJ is very complex and has multiple pharmacological and physiological effects.
There are currently two clear hypoglycemic pathways of DNJ:
1. As an α-glucosidase inhibitor, it delays the absorption of sugar in food and lowers postprandial blood sugar. 2. As a glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor, inhibit liver glycogen decomposition and stabilize fasting blood sugar.
2. It has certain effect on improving insulin resistance.
Reduce postprandial blood sugar: α-glucosidase is mainly distributed in the human small intestine and plays an important role in the decomposition of carbohydrates. They are responsible for breaking down oligosaccharides such as disaccharides in food into simple sugars such as glucose. This glucose enters the body through the intestinal wall, causing a sharp increase in blood sugar concentration in the body.
3. The pathway of α-glucosidase to break down sucrose
1-Deoxynojirimycin Powder is a natural and powerful α-glucosidase inhibitor that can competitively bind to α-glucosidase in the small intestine, and its affinity is stronger than the affinity of disaccharides such as sucrose and maltose to α-glucosidase, reducing the amount of α-glucosidase. The probability of sugar binding to α-glucosidase inhibits the decomposition of disaccharides into glucose, and a large amount of sugar is not absorbed and is sent to the large intestine. Due to the action of DNJ, less glucose enters the blood, so blood sugar levels can be maintained at healthy levels.
4 DNJ’s mechanism of action in inhibiting postprandial blood sugar elevation
[Stabilize fasting blood sugar] Liver glycogen can be decomposed into glucose under the action of glycogen phosphorylase and released into the blood to supply muscles and other organs, providing the energy source for physical activities. By virtue of the mutual conversion of liver glycogen and glucose, the blood sugar of normal people is in a dynamic balance.
Function of the liver In patients with diabetes, excessive liver glycogen is broken down into glucose, which leads to abnormally high fasting blood sugar levels. DNJ can stabilize fasting blood sugar by inhibiting the activity of glycogen phosphorylase, preventing excessive liver glycogen from being decomposed into glucose and causing an increase in blood sugar levels.
DNJ inhibits excessive hepatic glycogen breakdown
[Improve insulin resistance] Insulin resistance refers to various reasons (mainly including genetic factors and obesity) that cause insulin to promote glucose metabolism.
The efficiency of uptake and utilization decreases, and the body secretes too much insulin to compensate. This results in hyperinsulinemia to maintain the stability of blood sugar in the body. If the human body is in a state of insulin resistance for a long time, it will greatly increase the burden on the pancreas, which may lead to failure of the pancreatic insulin secretion function, and then develop into diabetes.
DNJ can improve the symptoms of insulin resistance by maintaining healthy blood sugar, correcting lipid metabolism, and increasing insulin sensitivity.
Typical symptoms of insulin resistance - obesity
DNJ is a natural product derived from mulberry leaves. It is not artificially synthesized. It is safe and has no side effects. No gastrointestinal side effects: DNJ does not have the symptoms of nausea, vomiting, bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea and other discomforts commonly seen in traditional Chinese medicine. Does not affect liver and kidney health: DNJ does not need to be metabolized by the liver, stays in the body for a short time, and will not damage human liver and kidney functions.
Gastrointestinal side effects are mainly caused by residual polyglycolysis in the gastrointestinal tract. DNJ has no inhibitory effect on α-amylase, so there will be no unabsorbed polysaccharides remaining in the intestine, eliminating the serious gastrointestinal side effects caused by acarbose products.
· Pharmacokinetic tests show that DNJ has a short residence time in the body and no accumulation of toxicity; it does not require liver metabolism and is excreted in its original form without metabolic by-products.
Mulberry Leaf extract DNJ supplier
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