Andrographolide: The Potent Natural Compound For Boosting Immunity And Fighti...

Andrographolide is a diterpene lactone compound extracted from the plant Andrographis paniculata of the Acanthaceae family. It is one of the main active ingredients of the traditional Chinese medicine Andrographis paniculata. It is white square prism or flaky crystal, odorless and bitter. Andrographolide is soluble in boiling ethanol Chemicalbook, slightly soluble in methanol or ethanol, very slightly soluble in chloroform, almost insoluble in water or ether. It has the effects of dispelling heat and detoxification, reducing inflammation and relieving pain, and has special curative effects on bacterial and viral upper respiratory tract infections and dysentery. It is known as a natural antibiotic drug.

Chemical properties: White square or rectangular crystals. Melting point 224-230°C (decomposition). Soluble in boiling ethanol, slightly soluble in methanol or ethanol, very slightly soluble in chloroform, insoluble in water or ether. Odorless, very bitter taste. Use Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, heat-clearing, detoxifying medicine. It is suitable for treating bacillary dysentery, acute gastroenteritis, mumps, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, upper respiratory tract infection and other diseases.

Preparation method

Andrographolides andrographolides leaves were soaked in 95% ethanol, and the resulting ethanol soaked solution was decolorized with activated carbon. The concentrated solution recovered from the ethanol distilled from the decolorizing solution was static to obtain coarse crystal product. The coarse crystal was heated and dissolved with 15 times the amount of 95% ethanol, then decolorized with activated carbon, filtered while hot, and recrystallized while standing to obtain the pale yellow recrystallized product. For crude drugs, the total yield was 1-1.5%.

Pharmacological action

Pathogenic microbial action

Animal experiments showed that both andrographolide and neoandrographolide could inhibit and delay the rise of body temperature caused by diplococcus pneumoniae and B streptococcus hemolyticus, but the effect of andrographolide was stronger than that of neoandrographolide.

In vitro experiments showed that Andrographis paniculata had some anti-HIV effects.

Antipyretic action

Andrographolide has different antipyretic effects on endotoxin fever, pneumococcus or hemolytic streptococcus fever in rabbits. The antipyretic effects of Andropanthoid A, B, C and butyl on rabbits with fever caused by typhoid and paratyphoid vaccine or rats with fever caused by 2, 4-dinitrophenol were decreased in turn.

Anti-inflammatory effect

A, B, C and butin all have anti-inflammatory effects to varying degrees. 1g/kg administration can inhibit the increase of capillary permeability in skin or peritoneal cavity caused by xylene or acetic acid, and reduce the amount of acute exudate caused by soybean oil in Selye granulation sac, but has no obvious effect on granulation tissue proliferation. It can inhibit the development of foot swelling in egg-white rats, but the effect disappears after excision of adrenal gland. The anti-inflammatory effect of butyl was the strongest, followed by propyl, methyl and ethyl.

Effect on immune function

It has been reported that Andrographis paniculata may have an effect on some aspects of cellular immunity. In vitro, its decoction can improve the phagocytic ability of human white blood cells to staphylococcus aureus, and oral administration of andrographolis andrographolis can enhance the delayed skin hypersensitivity caused by old tuberculin. Andrographolium preparations (including ester and ketone) can increase the level of serum lysozyme and enhance the phagocytosis ability of peritoneal macrophages and neutrophils. The phagocytic ability of peripheral blood phagocytic cells to pneumococcus or staphylococcus aureus can be increased by continuous administration of andrographolide sulfonates in rabbits or mice. Andrographolidine injection and Xiyanping injection can also enhance the phagocytic cell function. Dehydrated androhelide succinate also inhibited delayed hypersensitivity induced by 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene in mice.


Andrographis paniculata has obvious effect of stopping pregnancy. Andrographis paniculata oral administration can cause contraception in mice and abortion in pregnant rabbits. Intraperitoneal injection of water decoction had significant stopping effect on implantation, early pregnancy, middle pregnancy and late pregnancy in mice. Intramuscular injection, subcutaneous injection, irrigation, intraperitoneal injection, intravenous injection and intrauterine injection can produce anti-early pregnancy effect, among which abdominal, intravenous and intrauterine injection has the best effect. Intrauterine injection, dosage is small, the effect is good. If exogenous progesterone or luteinizing hormone release, hormone (LH-RH) is injected at the same time with andrographis andrographis, abortion can be prevented, suggesting that andrographis may have an effect against progesterone in the body, thereby causing abortion. Some people think that Andrographis paniculata can inhibit the growth of placental villus trophoblast cells in vitro. The research shows that: Some semi-synthetic derivatives of andropanolactone also have anti-early pregnancy effects to varying degrees. Dehydroandropanolactone derivate-translucin-4 has good anti-early pregnancy effects on both mice and rats, and is a new contraceptive drug worthy of further study. This drug has a significant effect on placental trophoblastic cells, which can atrophy the placental villi and reduce the number of cells. Syncytic cells and Langhan cells disappeared, interstitial edema bleeding.

Gallbladder and liver protection

Andrographis paniculata has good gallbladder effect on rats, can increase liver weight and shorten sleep time caused by cyclohexanobarbital sodium. Andrographolide pre-administration can counteract the hepatotoxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride, D-galactosamine and acetaminophenol, and can significantly reduce SGPT, SGOT, SALP and HTG levels, respectively. It has been reported that the methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata is toxic and can promote the death of rats with liver injury.

Other role

Yanhuning and Chuanhuning injection have obvious sedative effect, can shorten the incubation period and prolong the anesthesia time of pentobarbital sodium in mice, and can cause anesthesia with subthreshold amount of pentobarbital sodium.

Andrographolide can increase the function of adrenal cortex. Andrographolide a, B, C and butin can atrophy the thymus in young mice at higher doses.


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